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Initial margin requirement
When buying securities on margin, the proportion of the total market value of the securities that the investor must pay for in cash. The Security Exchange Act of 1934 gives the board of governors of the Federal Reserve the responsibility to set initial margin requirements, but individual brokerage firms are free to set higher requirements. In futures contracts, initial margin requirements are set by the exchange.
Initial public offering (IPO)
A company's first sale of stock to the public. Securities offered in an IPO are often, but not always, those of young, small companies seeking outside equity capital and a public market for their stock. Investors purchasing stock in IPO's generally must be prepared to accept very large risks for the possibility of large gains.
Input-output tables
Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.
Institutional investors
Organizations that invest, including insurance companies, depository institutions, pension funds, investment companies, and endowment funds.
The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world.
Insured bond
A municipal bond backed both by the credit of the municipal issuer and by commercial insurance policies.
Intangible asset
A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Financial assets, also called financial instruments or securities, are intangible assets.
Interest coverage ratio
The ratio of the earnings available for paying the interest for a given year to the annual interest expense.
Interest Rate
The charge for the privilege of borrowing money, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate.
Interest rate agreement
An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined level (the strike rate).
Interest rate cap
Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.
Interest rate ceiling
Related: Interest rate cap
Interest Rate Driven
Refers to a point in the business cycle when interest rates are declining and bond prices are rising.
Interest rate floor
An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls below the strike rate.
Interest rate risk
For a bond, the risk that a rise in interest rates will decrease the bond's price. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.
Interest rate swap
A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount.
Intermarket Analysis
Observing the price movement of one market for the purpose of evaluating a different market.
Intermarket sector spread
The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for issues of the same maturity.
Intermarket Spread
A spread consisting of opposing positions in instruments with two different markets.
Intermarket spread swaps
An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.
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