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Opening price
The range of prices at which the first bids and offers were made or first transaction were completed. Related: Range
Opening, the
The period at the beginning of the trading session officially designated by the exchange during which all transactions are considered made "at the opening". Related: Close, the
Operating cycle
The average time intervening between the acquisition of materials or services and the final cash realization from those acquisitions.
Operating Expenses
The normal costs a mutual fund incurs in conducting business, such as the expenses associated with maintaining offices, staff, and equipment. There are also expenses related to maintaining the fund's portfolio of securities. These expenses are paid from the fund's assets before any earnings are distributed.
Operationally efficient market
Also called an internally efficient market, one in which investors can obtain transactions services that reflect the true costs associated with furnishing those services.
Opportunity costs
The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment adjusted for fixed costs and execution costs. The performance differential is a consequence of not being able to implement all desired trades.
Optimal portfolio
An efficient portfolio most preferred by an investor because its risk/reward characteristics approximate the investor's utility function. A portfolio that maximizes an investor's preferences with respect to return and risk.
Optimization approach to indexing
An approach to indexing which seeks to Optimize some objective, such as to maximize the portfolio yield, to maximize convexity, or to maximize expected total returns.
Option
The right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying futures contract.
Option Fund
A fund which trades options to increase the value of its shares. The fund may either be conservative or aggressive. A conservative fund, commonly called an "option income fund," may buy stocks and increase shareholders' income through the premium earned by writing options on the stocks within the portfolio. An aggressive fund, commonly called an "option growth fund," may buy options in securities that the fund manager thinks will fall or rise sharply in the near term.
Option Holder
The buyer of either a call or put option.
Option Premium
This is the price of an option.
Option price
Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.
Option seller
Also called the option writer, the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in the future.
Option Writer
The seller of either a call or put option.
Option-adjusted spread (OAS)
The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market price.
Options contract
A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).
Options contract multiple
A constant, set at $100, which when multiplied by the cash index value gives the dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is, dollar value of the underlying stock index = cash index value x $100 (the options contract multiple).
Options on physicals
Interest rate options written on fixed-income securities, as opposed to those written on interest rate futures contracts.
Order
A ticket or voucher representing long or short securities and options.
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