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Lipper Analytical Services Inc.
A leading mutual fund research and tracking firm. Lipper categorizes funds by objective and size, and then ranks fund performance within those categories.
Lipper Indicdes
The Lipper Analytical Indices are equally weighted indices of typically the 30 largest mutual funds within their respective investment objectives. Returns are adjusted for the reinvestment of capital gains distributions and income dividends.
Liquidation
Any transaction that offsets or closes out a long or short position. Related: Buy in, Evening up, Offset
Liquidity
A market is liquid when it has a high level of trading activity, allowing buying and selling with minimum price disturbance. Also a market characterized by the ability to buy and sell with relative ease.
Liquidity risk
The risk that arises from the difficulty of selling an asset. It can be thought of as the difference between the "true value" of the asset and the likely price, less commissions.
Liquidity theory of the term structure
A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a liquidity premium.
Listed stocks
Stocks that are traded on an exchange.
Load
A sales charge assessed by certain mutual funds (load funds) to cover selling costs. A front-end load is charged at the time of purchase. A back-end load is charged at the time of sale.
Load fund
A mutual fund that tends to impose large commissions, typically ranging from 8.5% on small amounts invested down to 1% on amounts of $500,000 or over. Related: No-load fund
Loan value
The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate specified in the policy.
Local expectations theory
A form of the pure expectations theory which suggests that the returns on bonds of different maturities will be the same over a short-term investment horizon.
Locked Market
A market where trading has been halted because prices have reached their daily trading limit.
Long
One who has bought a contract(s) to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this position through an offsetting sale; the opposite of short. Related: Short
Long hedge
The purchase of a futures contract(s) in anticipation of actual purchases in the cash market. Used by processors or exporters as protection against an advance in the cash price. Related: Hedge, Short hedge
Long position
In the cash market, the ownership of securities. In the futures market, the purchase of a futures contract with no offsetting short position. In the options market, the purchase of an option with no offsetting short position. Related: Short position
Long straddle
A straddle in which a long position is taken in both a put and call option.
Long-term debt to equity ratio
A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.
Long-Term Funds
All funds other than short-term funds (i.e., money market funds).
Low (lo)
This is the lowest price paid for a stock during a certain period.
Low Load
A sales charge of 3% or less.
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