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Diversification
The practice of spreading investments among different securities to reduce risk. Diversification works best when the returns of the securities are varied, so that losses incurred by securities falling in price are offset by gains of those rising in price. By nature, mutual funds are a diversified investment.
Dividend
The cash payment per share made by the company to its shareholders every quarter. It is usually the part of profits that was notreinvested in the company. Dividends are taxed as income, not capital gains.
Dividend Rate
The fixed or floating rate paid on preferred stock base on par value.
Dividend Yield
A company's declared dividends per share as a percentage of its current share price.
Dollar Cost Averaging
Investment strategy of making steady fixed investments (monthly for example) to a mutual fund. This is helpful to maintain savings discipline and smooth out market swings from investor's perspective.
Double Exempt Fund
A fund that only invests in tax-exempt bonds of issuers from a single state. Income from a double exempt fund is free of federal and state income taxes for investors residing in the same state as the issuers of the bonds. Double-exempt funds have been particularly popular in the high-tax states of California and New York. Double tax exempt funds are usually subject in part or whole to the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT). AMT percentage calculations for income tax purposes are available after each year end by contacting the fund directly.
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA)
The oldest, best known, and most widely quoted stock market index. The DJIA reflects a price-weighted average of 30 actively traded blue chip stocks. These 30 securities represent between 15-20% of the market value of the New York Stock Exchange traded stocks.
Downside
The potential for prices to decrease.
Downside Risk
The potential risk one takes if prices decrease in directional trading.
Dual Purpose Fund
A closed-end fund offering two classes of stock in approximately equal amounts. One class (income shares) is entitled to all the income from the fund's portfolio (i.e., dividends from investments). The second class (capital shares) is entitled to all of the capital appreciation from the fund's holdings. At the time a dual purpose fund is established, a date is set on which the fund will be liquidated. At that time, income shareholders receive preference up to the par value of their shares and capital shareholders receive any excess.
Dual-Currency Issues
Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different currency.
Duration
A common gauge of the price sensitivity of an asset or portfolio to a change in interest rates.
Dynamic Asset Allocation
An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in response to changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.
Dynamic Hedging
A strategy that involves rebalancing hedge positions as market conditions change; a strategy that seeks to insure the value of a portfolio using a synthetic put option.
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