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Conversion Ratio
The number of shares of common stock that the security holder will receive from exercising the call option of a convertible security.
Convertible Securities Funds
A fund that invests primarily in convertible bonds and/or convertible preferred stocks.
Convertible Security
Corporate securities (usually preferred shares or stock or bonds) that are exchangeable for a set number of another form of security (usually common stock) at a prestated price.
Corporate Bond Funds
A fund that invests primarily in corporate bonds. In general, corporate bond funds seek income over capital growth.
Correction
A sudden decline in the price of a security after a period of market strength.
Counterparties
The parties to an interest rate swap.
Counterparty Risk
The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country Funds
A fund that invests primarily in the securities of a single country. In some cases, country funds also invest in securities outside the single country if those securities are expected to benefit by growth in that country.
Country Risk
The potential for price fluctuations in stocks sold in foreign countries due to events (political, financial, etc.) in these countries.
Coupon
The periodic interest payment made to the bondholders during the life of the bond.
Coupon Rate
The rate of interest that, when multiplied by the par value, indicates the dollar value of the coupon payment.
Cover
The purchase of a contract to offset a previously established short position.
Covered Call
A short call option position against a long position in an underlying stock or futures.
Covered Call Writing Strategy
A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor owns in his or her portfolio. 
Covered or Hedge Option Strategies
Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other, including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: Naked strategies
Covered Put
A short put option position against a short position in an underlying stock or futures.
Creation Unit
The smallest block of ETF shares that can be bought or sold from the fund company at net asset value, usually 50,000. These are only bought and sold "in-kind." For example, when you sell one, you receive a portfolio of securities that approximates the ETF's holdings, not cash. Creation units' size means that only market makers and institutions can afford to buy or sell them. All other investors can buy or sell ETF shares in any size lot at the market price, rather than at NAV, over an exchange.
Credit Rating
A measure of a bond issuer's creditworthiness as rated by an independent agency, such as Standard & Poor's or Moody's Investor Services. Ratings are set as a reflection of the perceived financial stability of the issuer, from AAA to D. Bonds rated Baa or higher by Moody's, or BBB or higher by S&P, are considered "investment grade." Conservative investors tend to select funds composed of all AAA rated bonds, or "investment grade" bonds. More aggressive investors, looking for high yields, are more interested in funds that invest in lower rated bonds.
Credit Risk
The possibility that a bond issuer will default, failing to repay principal or interest as promised. "Credit risk" is also known as "default risk."
Credit Spread
The difference in value between 2 options, where the value of the short position exceeds the value of the long position.
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