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Blue Chips
This term is derived from poker where blue chips hold the most value. Blue chips in the stock market are stocks with the best market capitalization in the marketplace.
Blue Sky Laws
Board Lot
The smallest quantity of shares traded on an exchange at standard commission rates.
Bond
A debt instrument issued by corporations and governments to raise capital. Interest on the outstanding debt is paid to bondholdersat specific intervals, with the principal amount of the loan paid on the bond maturity date.
Bond Fund
A fund that invests primarily in bonds, whether they are issued by corporations, municipalities, or the U.S. government and related agencies. Bond funds generally emphasize income over growth, and can generate either taxable or tax-free income.
Bond indenture
The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of investors.
Bond indexing
Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.
Bond-equivalent basis
The method uses for computing the bond-equivalent yield.
Bond-equivalent yield
The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.
Book value
The total owners' equity shown in the balance sheet.
Book value per share
The ratio of stockholder's equity to the average number of common shares. Book value per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation (and not necessarily market valuation).
Bootstrapping
A process of creating a theoretical spot rate curve, using one yield projection as the basis for the yield of the next maturity.
Bottom-Up
An investment strategy that first seeks individual companies with attractive investment potential, then proceeds to consider the larger economic and industry trends affecting those companies.
Break
A rapid and sharp price decline.
Break-even
The point at which gains equal losses. The market price that a stock or future must reach for an option to avoid loss if exercised.For a call, the break-even equals the strike price plus the premium paid. For a put, the break-even equals the strike price minus the premium paid.
Break-even time
Related: Premium payback period
Breakout
A rise in the price of an underlying instrument above its resistance level or a drop below the support level.
Breakpoints
Mutual funds with front-end loads, or a sales charge, enable investors to reduce front-end sales charges as the amount of thatinvestment increases to certain levels called "breakpoints". Each prospectus will have details on the breakpoints used to reduce the front-endsales charge.
Broad-based Index
An index designed to reflect the movement of the market as a whole. (For example, the S&P 100, the S&P 500, and the AMEX Major Market Index).
Broker
An individual who is paid a commission for executing customer orders. Either a Floor Broker who executes orders on the floor of the Exchange, or an Upstairs Broker who handles retail customers and their orders.
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