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Glossary

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Viewing terms 1 - 17 of 17

Value
Describes stocks in a market which have relatively low Price-to-Earnings or other valuation ratio. Typically slow growth, high dividend companies. Typically safer than growth stocks with high valuations.
Value Investing
The investment style of attempting to buy underpriced stocks that have the potential to perform well and increase in price.
Value Manager
A manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and sell them at or in excess of that value. Also called contrarians because they see value where many other market participants do not.
Variable Annuity
A type of insurance contract that guarantees future payments to the holder, or annuitant. Capital accumulates tax-free, often through investment in a mutual fund, and is converted to an income stream at a future date (usually retirement). All monies held in the annuity accumulate on a tax-deferred basis.
Variable Delta
A delta that can change due to the change of an underlying asset or a change in time expiration of an option.
Variable Life
A whole life insurance policy that provides a death benefit that depends on the market value of the insured's portfolio at the time of the death. Typically the company invests premiums in common stocks, and hence variable life policies are referred to as equity-linked policies.
Variance
A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value.
Variance minimization approach to tracking
An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to estimate the variance of the tracking error.
Variation margin
An additional required deposit to bring an investor's equity account up to the initial margin level when the balance falls below the maintenance margin requirement.
Vega
The amount by which the price of an option changes when the volatility changes. Also referred to as volatility.
Venture capital
An investment in a start-up business that is perceived to have excellent growth prospects but does not have access to capital markets.
Vertical analysis
The process of dividing each expense item in the income statement of a given year by net sales to identify expense items that rise faster or slower than a change in sales.
VIPERs
Vanguard Index Participation Receipts: ETF versions of Vanguard index funds. VIPERs are structured as share classes of existing open-end funds.
Volatility
The rise and fall price movement of a security. Securities that rise or fall rapidly within a short time frame are considered more volatile than those that don't. (See Beta)
Volatility Skew
The theory that options that are deeply out-of-the-money tend to have higher implied volatility levels that at-the-money options. Volatility skew measures and accounts for the limitation found in most options pricing models and uses it to give the tra der an edge in estimating an option's worth.
Volume
The total number of shares of a stock traded during a specific time period. (In this case, it is the latest trading day.)Unusually high volume days typically correspond with the announcement of company news, either positive or negative. In the absence of news,high volume can indicate institutional (or professional) buying and selling.
Voluntary Accumulation Plan
A plan to acquire additional shares in a mutual fund on a more or less regular basis, at the discretion of the shareholder.
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